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Several protocols often describe different aspects of a single communication. A group of protocols called to work together is called the continuation of the protocol. if they are implemented in the software, it is a protocol stack. When multiple computers are connected to each other, it is called a network. Networks allow data to be exchanged between different devices and provide shared resources. Depending on the transmission techniques and standards used, different types of networks are implemented. These differ in terms of the number of connected systems and the potential range. Because TCP/IP is needed for Internet connection, the growth of the Internet has generated interest in TCP/IP. As more and more organizations became familiar with TCP/IP, they saw that its performance can be applied to other network applications.

Internet protocols are often used for local networks, even if the local network is not connected to the Internet. TCP/IP is also often used to create business networks. TCP/IP-based business networks using internet technologies and web tools to disseminate internal business information are called intranets. TCP/IP is the basis of all these multiple networks. A layer does not define a single protocol – it defines a data communication function that can be performed from any number of protocols. Therefore, each level may contain several protocols, each providing a service tailored to the function of this level. For example, a file transfer protocol and an e-mail protocol provide usage services, and both are part of the application level. Around the time TCP/IP was adopted as the norm, the term Internet became generic. In 1983, the former ARPAnet was divided into MILNET, the unclassified part of the Defence Data Network (DDN) and a new, smaller ARPAnet. “Internet” was used to refer to the entire network: MILNET ARPAnet. Internet communication protocols are published by the Internet Engineers Study Group (IETF). The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) adopts wired and wireless networks and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) of other types.

ItU-T processes telecommunications protocols and formats for the telephone network (PSTN). As the NSP and the Internet converge, standards are also pushed towards convergence. The two CFRs that define access networking protocols are: Network protocols are often defined in an industrial standard — developed, defined and published by groups such as: Although the OSI model is useful, TCP/IP protocols do not exactly match their structure. That is why, in our discussions on TCP/IP, we use the layers of the OSI model as follows: some of the standards bodies involved in communication protocols are the International Standards Organisation (ISO), the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) and the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The IETF manages the protocols used on the Internet. The IEEE controls many software and hardware protocols in the electronics industry for commercial and consumer equipment. The ITU is an umbrella organization of telecommunications engineers who design the public telephone network (TVN) as well as many radio communication systems.

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